Home | 簡體中文 | 繁體中文 | 雜文 | 打賞(Donations) | ITEYE 博客 | OSChina 博客 | Facebook | Linkedin | 知乎專欄 | Search | Email

第 45 章 Nginx

目錄

45.1. Installing
45.1.1. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu
45.1.2. CentOS
45.1.2.1. spawn-fcgi script
45.1.2.2. php-fpm
45.1.2.3. fastcgi backend
45.1.3. installing by source
45.1.4. -V show version and configure options then exit
45.1.5. config test
45.1.6. rotate log
45.1.6.1. log shell
45.1.6.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
45.1.7. CentOS 7
45.2. nginx 配置檔案
45.2.1. http 配置
45.2.2. events
45.2.3. gzip
45.2.3.1. CDN支持
45.2.4. server_tokens
45.2.5. ssi
45.2.6. server
45.2.6.1. listen
45.2.6.2. 單域名虛擬主機
45.2.6.3. ssl 虛擬主機
45.2.6.4. server_name 配置
45.2.6.5. root 通過$host智能匹配目錄
45.2.6.6. location
45.2.6.7. expires
45.2.6.8. access
45.2.6.9. auth_basic
45.2.6.10. autoindex
45.2.6.11. try_files
45.2.6.12. stub_status
45.2.6.13. add_header
45.2.6.14. valid_referers
45.2.7. HTTP2 配置 SSL證書
45.2.7.1. spdy
45.2.7.2. HTTP2
45.2.7.3. 用戶訪問 HTTP時強制跳轉到 HTTPS
45.2.8. rewrite
45.2.8.1. http get 參數處理
45.2.8.2. 正則取非
45.2.9. upstream 負載均衡
45.2.9.1. weight 權重配置
45.2.10. fastcgi
45.2.10.1. spawn-fcgi
45.2.10.2. php-fpm
45.2.11. return
45.2.12. Nginx 變數
45.2.12.1. $host
45.2.12.2. http_user_agent
45.2.12.3. http_referer
45.2.12.4. request_filename
45.2.12.5. request_uri
45.2.12.6. remote_addr
45.2.12.7. http_cookie
45.2.12.8. request_method
45.2.12.9. invalid_referer
45.2.12.10. 自定義變數
45.2.12.11. if 條件判斷
45.3. Proxy
45.3.1. proxy_cache
45.3.2. rewrite + proxy_pass
45.3.3. request_filename + proxy_pass
45.3.4. $request_uri 與 proxy_pass 聯合使用
45.3.5. try_files 與 proxy_pass 共用
45.3.6. Proxy 與 SSI
45.3.7. Host
45.3.8. expires
45.3.9. X-Forwarded-For
45.3.10. X-Sendfile
45.3.11. proxy_http_version
45.3.12. proxy_set_header
45.3.13. timeout 超時時間
45.3.14. example
45.3.14.1. upstream 實例
45.3.14.2. Tomcat 實例
45.4. ngx_http_flv_module
45.5. ngx_http_mp4_module
45.6. limit_zone
45.7. image_filter
45.8. Example
45.8.1. Nginx + Tomcat
45.8.2. 攔截index.html
45.8.3. Nginx -> Nginx -> Tomcat
45.9. FAQ
45.9.1. 405 Not Allowed?
45.9.2. 502 Bad Gateway?
45.9.3. 413 Request Entity Too Large
45.9.4. 502 Bad Gateway?
45.9.5. 499 Client Closed Request
45.9.6. proxy_pass
45.9.7. proxy_pass SESSION 丟失問題
45.9.8. [alert] 55785#0: *11449 socket() failed (24: Too many open files) while connecting to upstream
45.9.9. server_name 與 SSI 注意事項
45.9.10. location 跨 document_root 引用,引用 document_root 之外的資源
45.9.11. nginx: [warn] duplicate MIME type "text/html" in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

45.1. Installing

45.1.1. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu

			
$ sudo apt-get install nginx
			
			
			
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
			
			

45.1.2. CentOS

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/

$releasever 是版本號

$basearch 處理器架構

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			

i386

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/5/i386/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			
yum search nginx
============================================= Matched: nginx =============================================
nginx.x86_64 : high performance web server

yum install -y nginx
chkconfig nginx on
service nginx start
			

45.1.2.1. spawn-fcgi script

yum -y install spawn-fcgi
				

/etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi

移除SOCKET與OPTIONS註釋, apache改為nginx

# cat /etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi
# You must set some working options before the "spawn-fcgi" service will work.
# If SOCKET points to a file, then this file is cleaned up by the init script.
#
# See spawn-fcgi(1) for all possible options.
#
# Example :
SOCKET=/var/run/php-fcgi.sock
OPTIONS="-u apache -g apache -s $SOCKET -S -M 0600 -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -- /usr/bin/php-cgi"
				
				
chkconfig spawn-fcgi on
				
				

starting spawn-fcgi

/etc/init.d/spawn-fcgi start
				

check port

# netstat -nl
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN
Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags       Type       State         I-Node Path
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     25282  /var/run/php-fcgi.sock
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     8227   @/com/ubuntu/upstart
				
				

Unix domain socket

location ~ \.php$ { fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fcgi.sock; fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name; include fastcgi_params; }

TCP/IP

/usr/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 9000 -u nginx -g nginx -d /www -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -f /usr/bin/php-cgi
				

				
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
				
				
# netstat -tulpn | grep :9000
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      26877/php-cgi
				
chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				

45.1.2.2. php-fpm

rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm
yum install nginx -y
				

chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				
yum -y install mysql mysql-server
yum -y install php php-cgi php-mysql php-mbstring php-gd php-fastcgi
yum -y install perl-DBI perl-DBD-MySQL
				

其他 php-fpm YUM源

rpm --import http://rpms.famillecollet.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi
rpm -ivh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-6.rpm
				
# rpm -Uvh http://centos.alt.ru/repository/centos/6/i386/centalt-release-6-1.noarch.rpm
# yum update
				

45.1.2.3. fastcgi backend

				
upstream backend  {
  server   localhost:1234;
}

fastcgi_pass   backend;
				
				

45.1.3. installing by source

			
cd /usr/local/src/
wget http://www.nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.6.tar.gz

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/server/nginx \
--with-openssl=/usr/include \
--with-pcre=/usr/include/pcre/ \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--without-http_memcached_module \
--without-http_fastcgi_module \
--without-http_rewrite_module \
--without-http_map_module \
--without-http_geo_module \
--without-http_autoindex_module
			
			

rpm 所使用的編譯參數

nginx -V
nginx: nginx version: nginx/1.0.6
nginx: built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
nginx: TLS SNI support enabled
nginx: configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwcgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6
			
# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.2.3
built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g'
			

45.1.4. -V show version and configure options then exit

[root@netkiller tmp]# nginx -v
nginx version: nginx/1.10.1

[root@netkiller tmp]# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.10.1
built by gcc 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-4) (GCC) 
built with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --modules-path=/usr/lib64/nginx/modules --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-http_xslt_module=dynamic --with-http_image_filter_module=dynamic --with-http_geoip_module=dynamic --with-http_perl_module=dynamic --add-dynamic-module=njs-1c50334fbea6/nginx --with-threads --with-stream --with-stream_ssl_module --with-http_slice_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-http_v2_module --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector-strong --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -grecord-gcc-switches -m64 -mtune=generic'

			

45.1.5. config test

$ sudo service nginx configtest
Testing nginx configuration: nginx.
			

45.1.6. rotate log

45.1.6.1. log shell

				
# cat /srv/bin/rotatelog.sh

#!/bin/bash
# run this script at 0:00

#Nginx Log Path
log_dir="/var/log/nginx"
date_dir=`date +%Y/%m/%d/%H`

mkdir -p ${log_dir}/${date_dir} > /dev/null 2>&1
mv ${log_dir}/access.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log
mv ${log_dir}/error.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log

kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`

gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log &
gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log &
				
				

45.1.6.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx

				
# cat /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
/var/log/nginx/*.log {
        daily
        missingok
        rotate 52
        compress
        delaycompress
        notifempty
        create 640 root adm
        sharedscripts
        postrotate
                [ -f /var/run/nginx.pid ] && kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`
        endscript
}
				
				

45.1.7. CentOS 7

			
#!/bin/bash
rpm -ivh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm
yum install -y nginx

cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf{,.original}

vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf <<VIM > /dev/null 2>&1
:%s/worker_processes  1;/worker_processes  8;/
:%s/worker_connections  1024;/worker_connections  4096;/
:%s/#gzip/server_tokens off;\r    gzip/
:%s/#gzip/gzip/
:wq
VIM

sed -i '4iworker_rlimit_nofile 65530;' /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

systemctl enable nginx
systemctl start nginx			
			
			

測試配置檔案是否正確

# nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful