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第 24 章 Shell command


24.1. Help Commands
24.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals manpath.config 查看man手冊位置 指定手冊位置
24.2. getconf - Query system configuration variables
24.3. Directory and File System Related
24.3.1. dirname
24.3.2. filename 排除副檔名 取副檔名
24.3.3. test - check file types and compare values
24.3.4. stat
24.3.5. mkdir - make directories
24.3.6. rename
24.3.7. touch
24.3.8. ls - list directory contents full-time / time-style 定義日期時間格式
24.3.9. cp - copy files and directories copy directories recursively overwrite an existing file -a, --archive same as -dR --preserve=all
24.3.10. rm - remove files or directories -bash: /bin/rm: Argument list too long zsh: sure you want to delete all the files in /tmp [yn]?
24.3.11. df - report file system disk space usage
24.3.12. du - estimate file space usage
24.3.13. tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
24.3.14. split - split a file into pieces 按行分割檔案 按尺寸分割檔案
24.3.15. find - search for files in a directory hierarchy name regex user perm type -delete exec xargs 排除目錄 -mmin n File's data was last modified n minutes ago. -mtime / -mmin --newer -print / -printf -size
24.4. package / compress and decompress
24.4.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility tar examples gunzip b2zip compress -t, --list tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names -C, --directory=DIR -P, --absolute-names don't strip leading `/'s from file names --exclude -T 日期過濾 保留權限 -r, --append 遠程傳輸 分卷壓縮
24.4.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives
24.4.3. gzip
24.4.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files
24.4.5. RAR
24.4.6. 7-Zip 壓縮 瀏覽壓縮包 解壓 Creates self extracting archive.
24.5. date and time
24.5.1. 日期格式
24.5.2. -d --date= 日期偏移量 時間偏移
24.5.3. weekday name
24.5.4. UTC
24.6. Numeric
24.6.1. 數值運算
24.6.2. seq - print a sequence of numbers
24.6.3. bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
24.7. Text Processing
24.7.1. iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another cconv - A iconv based simplified-traditional chinese conversion tool uconv - convert data from one encoding to another
24.7.2. 字元串處理命令expr
24.7.3. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output -s, --squeeze-blank suppress repeated empty output lines
24.7.4. nl - number lines of files
24.7.5. od - dump files in octal and other formats 16進制
24.7.6. tr - translate or delete characters
24.7.7. cut - remove sections from each line of files
24.7.8. printf - format and print data
24.7.9. Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.
24.7.10. /dev/urandom 隨機字元串
24.7.11. col - filter reverse line feeds from input
24.7.12. apg - generates several random passwords
24.7.13. head/tail
24.7.14. 反轉字元串或檔案內容
24.8. grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern
24.8.1. 刪除空行
24.8.2. -v, --invert-match
24.8.3. Output control -o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN 遞歸操作 -c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
24.8.4. Context control -A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context -B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context -C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context --color
24.8.5. Regexp selection and interpretation .* 2010:(13|14|15|16) []與{} -P, --perl-regexp Perl正則表達式
24.8.6. fgrep
24.8.7. egrep
24.9. sort - sort lines of text files
24.9.1. 對列排序
24.10. uniq
24.11. 表格操作/行列轉換
24.11.1. column - columnate lists
24.11.2. paste - merge lines of files
24.12. standard input/output
24.12.1. xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input 格式化 standard input -I 替換操作
24.13. Logging
24.13.1. logger - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module
24.14. Password
24.14.1. Shadow password suite configuration.
24.14.2. newusers - update and create new users in batch
24.14.3. chpasswd - update passwords in batch mode
24.15. binutils
24.15.1. strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.

24.1. Help Commands

24.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals manpath.config

cat /etc/manpath.config 查看man手冊位置

$ man -aw ls
/usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz 指定手冊位置

man -M /home/mysql/man mysql
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