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第 1 章 Nginx

目錄

1.1. Installing
1.1.1. Netkiller OSCM 一鍵安裝 (CentOS 7)
1.1.2. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu
1.1.3. CentOS
1.1.3.1. spawn-fcgi script
1.1.3.2. php-fpm
1.1.3.3. fastcgi backend
1.1.4. installing by source
1.1.5. CentOS 7
1.1.6. Mac
1.1.6.1. php-fpm
1.1.7. rotate log
1.1.7.1. log shell
1.1.7.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
1.2. Nginx 命令
1.2.1. -V show version and configure options then exit
1.2.2. -t : test configuration and exit
1.2.3. test configuration, dump it and exit
1.3. nginx 配置檔案
1.3.1. http 配置
1.3.2. events
1.3.3. gzip
1.3.3.1. CDN支持
1.3.4. server_tokens
1.3.5. ssi
1.3.6. server
1.3.6.1. listen
1.3.6.2. 單域名虛擬主機
1.3.6.3. ssl 虛擬主機
1.3.6.4. server_name 配置
1.3.6.5. root 通過$host智能匹配目錄
1.3.6.6. location
1.3.6.7. expires
1.3.6.7.1. 通過 add_header / more_set_headers 設置緩存
1.3.6.7.2. $request_uri
1.3.6.7.3. $request_filename
1.3.6.8. access
1.3.6.9. autoindex
1.3.6.10. try_files
1.3.6.11. add_header
1.3.6.11.1. Cache
1.3.6.11.2. Access-Control-Allow
1.3.7. HTTP2 配置 SSL證書
1.3.7.1. 自頒發證書
1.3.7.2. spdy
1.3.7.3. HTTP2
1.3.7.4. 用戶訪問 HTTP時強制跳轉到 HTTPS
1.3.7.5. SSL 雙向認證
1.3.7.5.1. 生成證書
1.3.7.5.1.1. CA
1.3.7.5.1.2. 伺服器端
1.3.7.5.1.3. 客戶端
1.3.7.5.1.4. 瀏覽器證書
1.3.7.5.1.5. SOAP 證書
1.3.7.5.1.6. 過程演示
1.3.7.5.2. Nginx 配置
1.3.7.5.3. 測試雙向認證
1.3.8. rewrite
1.3.8.1. http get 參數處理
1.3.8.2. 正則取非
1.3.9. upstream 負載均衡
1.3.9.1. weight 權重配置
1.3.9.2. backup 實現熱備
1.3.10. fastcgi
1.3.10.1. spawn-fcgi
1.3.10.2. php-fpm
1.3.10.2.1. php5-fpm
1.3.10.2.2. 編譯 php-fpm
1.3.10.2.2.1. php-fpm 狀態
1.3.10.2.3. fastcgi_pass
1.3.11. return
1.3.12. Nginx 變數
1.3.12.1. $host
1.3.12.2. http_user_agent
1.3.12.2.1. 禁止非瀏覽器訪問
1.3.12.2.2. http_user_agent 沒有設置不允許訪問
1.3.12.3. http_referer
1.3.12.3.1. valid_referers/invalid_referer
1.3.12.4. request_filename
1.3.12.5. request_uri
1.3.12.6. remote_addr
1.3.12.7. http_cookie
1.3.12.8. request_method
1.3.12.9. limit_except
1.3.12.10. invalid_referer
1.3.12.11. $request_body - HTTP POST 數據
1.3.12.11.1. 用戶日誌
1.3.12.11.2. $request_body 用於緩存
1.3.12.12. 自定義變數
1.3.12.13. if 條件判斷
1.4. Proxy
1.4.1. proxy_cache
1.4.2. rewrite + proxy_pass
1.4.3. request_filename + proxy_pass
1.4.4. $request_uri 與 proxy_pass 聯合使用
1.4.5. try_files 與 proxy_pass 共用
1.4.6. Proxy 與 SSI
1.4.7. Host
1.4.8. expires
1.4.9. X-Forwarded-For
1.4.10. X-Sendfile
1.4.11. proxy_http_version
1.4.12. proxy_set_header
1.4.13. timeout 超時時間
1.4.14. example
1.4.14.1. upstream 實例
1.4.14.2. Tomcat 實例
1.4.14.3. Nginx -> Nginx -> Tomcat
1.4.14.4. Proxy 處理 Cookie
1.4.14.5. Proxy 添加 CORS 頭
1.4.14.6. 通過 Proxy 漢化 restful 介面
1.5. Nginx module
1.5.1. stub_status
1.5.2. sub_filter 頁面中查找和替換
1.5.3. auth_basic
1.5.4. valid_referers
1.5.5. ngx_http_flv_module
1.5.6. ngx_http_mp4_module
1.5.7. limit_zone
1.5.8. image_filter
1.5.9. ngx_stream_proxy_module
1.5.10. limit_except
1.5.11. geoip_country_code
1.6. Example
1.6.1. Nginx + Tomcat
1.6.2. 攔截index.html
1.6.3. Session 的 Cookie 域處理
1.7. FAQ
1.7.1. 405 Not Allowed?
1.7.2. 502 Bad Gateway?
1.7.3. 413 Request Entity Too Large
1.7.4. 502 Bad Gateway?
1.7.5. 499 Client Closed Request
1.7.6. proxy_pass
1.7.7. proxy_pass SESSION 丟失問題
1.7.8. [alert] 55785#0: *11449 socket() failed (24: Too many open files) while connecting to upstream
1.7.9. server_name 與 SSI 注意事項
1.7.10. location 跨 document_root 引用,引用 document_root 之外的資源
1.7.11. nginx: [warn] duplicate MIME type "text/html" in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

1.1. Installing

1.1.1. Netkiller OSCM 一鍵安裝 (CentOS 7)

# curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/oscm/shell/master/web/nginx/stable/nginx.sh | bash
			

1.1.2. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu

			
$ sudo apt-get install nginx
			
			
			
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
			
			

1.1.3. CentOS

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/

$releasever 是版本號

$basearch 處理器架構

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			

i386

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/5/i386/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			
yum search nginx
============================================= Matched: nginx =============================================
nginx.x86_64 : high performance web server

yum install -y nginx
chkconfig nginx on
service nginx start
			

1.1.3.1. spawn-fcgi script

yum -y install spawn-fcgi
				

/etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi

移除SOCKET與OPTIONS註釋, apache改為nginx

# cat /etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi
# You must set some working options before the "spawn-fcgi" service will work.
# If SOCKET points to a file, then this file is cleaned up by the init script.
#
# See spawn-fcgi(1) for all possible options.
#
# Example :
SOCKET=/var/run/php-fcgi.sock
OPTIONS="-u apache -g apache -s $SOCKET -S -M 0600 -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -- /usr/bin/php-cgi"
				
				
chkconfig spawn-fcgi on
				
				

starting spawn-fcgi

/etc/init.d/spawn-fcgi start
				

check port

# netstat -nl
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN
Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags       Type       State         I-Node Path
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     25282  /var/run/php-fcgi.sock
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     8227   @/com/ubuntu/upstart
				
				

Unix domain socket

location ~ \.php$ { fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fcgi.sock; fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name; include fastcgi_params; }

TCP/IP

/usr/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 9000 -u nginx -g nginx -d /www -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -f /usr/bin/php-cgi
				

				
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
				
				
# netstat -tulpn | grep :9000
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      26877/php-cgi
				
chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				

1.1.3.2. php-fpm

rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm
yum install nginx -y
				

chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				
yum -y install mysql mysql-server
yum -y install php php-cgi php-mysql php-mbstring php-gd php-fastcgi
yum -y install perl-DBI perl-DBD-MySQL
				

其他 php-fpm YUM源

rpm --import http://rpms.famillecollet.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi
rpm -ivh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-6.rpm
				
# rpm -Uvh http://centos.alt.ru/repository/centos/6/i386/centalt-release-6-1.noarch.rpm
# yum update
				

1.1.3.3. fastcgi backend

				
upstream backend  {
  server   localhost:1234;
}

fastcgi_pass   backend;
				
				

1.1.4. installing by source

			
cd /usr/local/src/
wget http://www.nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.6.tar.gz

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/server/nginx \
--with-openssl=/usr/include \
--with-pcre=/usr/include/pcre/ \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--without-http_memcached_module \
--without-http_fastcgi_module \
--without-http_rewrite_module \
--without-http_map_module \
--without-http_geo_module \
--without-http_autoindex_module
			
			

rpm 所使用的編譯參數

nginx -V
nginx: nginx version: nginx/1.0.6
nginx: built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
nginx: TLS SNI support enabled
nginx: configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwcgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6
			
# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.2.3
built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g'
			

1.1.5. CentOS 7

			
#!/bin/bash
rpm -ivh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm
yum install -y nginx

cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf{,.original}

vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf <<VIM > /dev/null 2>&1
:%s/worker_processes  1;/worker_processes  8;/
:%s/worker_connections  1024;/worker_connections  4096;/
:%s/#gzip/server_tokens off;\r    gzip/
:%s/#gzip/gzip/
:wq
VIM

sed -i '4iworker_rlimit_nofile 65530;' /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

systemctl enable nginx
systemctl start nginx			
			
			

測試配置檔案是否正確

# nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful			
			

1.1.6. Mac

安裝

neo@MacBook-Pro ~ % brew install nginx 			
			

啟動

neo@MacBook-Pro ~ % brew services start nginx
==> Successfully started `nginx` (label: homebrew.mxcl.nginx)
			

重啟

neo@MacBook-Pro /usr/local/etc/nginx % brew services restart nginx
Stopping `nginx`... (might take a while)
==> Successfully stopped `nginx` (label: homebrew.mxcl.nginx)
==> Successfully started `nginx` (label: homebrew.mxcl.nginx)			
			

配置檔案在 /usr/local/etc/nginx 下,預設使用 8080連接埠

nginx.conf 檔案如下

			
#user  nobody;
worker_processes  1;

#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  65;

    #gzip  on;

    server {
        listen       8080;
        server_name  localhost;

        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

        location / {
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }

        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
    }


    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}


    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;

    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}
    include servers/*;
}

			
			

1.1.6.1. php-fpm

mac下自帶的軟件

neo@MacBook-Pro ~ % php -v
PHP 5.6.30 (cli) (built: Feb  7 2017 16:18:37) 
Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.6.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
				

啟動php-fpm方法如下

cd /private/etc
sudo cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
				

修改error_log項, 改為error_log = /usr/local/var/log/php-fpm.log

啟動 php-fpm

php-fpm
				

1.1.7. rotate log

1.1.7.1. log shell

一些特別的情況下需要切割日誌,請參考下面的例子

				
# cat /srv/bin/rotatelog.sh

#!/bin/bash
# run this script at 0:00

#Nginx Log Path
log_dir="/var/log/nginx"
date_dir=`date +%Y/%m/%d/%H`

mkdir -p ${log_dir}/${date_dir} > /dev/null 2>&1
mv ${log_dir}/access.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log
mv ${log_dir}/error.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log

kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`

gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log &
gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log &
				
				

1.1.7.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx

如果是非源碼安裝,一般情況nginx都會自帶日誌切割處理配置檔案。

				
# cat /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
/var/log/nginx/*.log {
        daily
        missingok
        rotate 52
        compress
        delaycompress
        notifempty
        create 640 root adm
        sharedscripts
        postrotate
                [ -f /var/run/nginx.pid ] && kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`
        endscript
}