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第 3 章 Shell command


3.1. Help Commands
3.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals manpath.config 查看man手冊位置 指定手冊位置
3.2. getconf - Query system configuration variables
3.3. Directory and File System Related
3.3.1. dirname
3.3.2. filename 排除副檔名 取副檔名
3.3.3. test - check file types and compare values
3.3.4. stat
3.3.5. mkdir - make directories
3.3.6. rename
3.3.7. touch
3.3.8. ls - list directory contents full-time / time-style 定義日期時間格式
3.3.9. cp - copy files and directories copy directories recursively overwrite an existing file -a, --archive same as -dR --preserve=all
3.3.10. rm - remove files or directories -bash: /bin/rm: Argument list too long zsh: sure you want to delete all the files in /tmp [yn]?
3.3.11. df - report file system disk space usage
3.3.12. du - estimate file space usage
3.3.13. tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
3.3.14. split - split a file into pieces 按行分割檔案 按尺寸分割檔案
3.3.15. find - search for files in a directory hierarchy name regex user perm type -delete exec xargs 排除目錄 -mmin n File's data was last modified n minutes ago. -mtime / -mmin --newer -print / -printf -size
3.4. package / compress and decompress
3.4.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility tar examples gunzip b2zip compress -t, --list tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names -C, --directory=DIR -P, --absolute-names don't strip leading `/'s from file names --exclude -T 日期過濾 保留權限 -r, --append 遠程傳輸 分卷壓縮
3.4.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives
3.4.3. gzip
3.4.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files
3.4.5. RAR
3.4.6. 7-Zip 壓縮 瀏覽壓縮包 解壓 Creates self extracting archive.
3.5. date and time
3.5.1. 日期格式
3.5.2. -d --date= 日期偏移量 時間偏移
3.5.3. weekday name
3.5.4. UTC
3.6. Numeric
3.6.1. 數值運算
3.6.2. seq - print a sequence of numbers
3.6.3. bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
3.7. Text Processing
3.7.1. iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another cconv - A iconv based simplified-traditional chinese conversion tool uconv - convert data from one encoding to another
3.7.2. 字元串處理命令expr
3.7.3. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output -s, --squeeze-blank suppress repeated empty output lines
3.7.4. nl - number lines of files
3.7.5. od - dump files in octal and other formats 16進制
3.7.6. tr - translate or delete characters
3.7.7. cut - remove sections from each line of files
3.7.8. printf - format and print data
3.7.9. Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.
3.7.10. /dev/urandom 隨機字元串
3.7.11. col - filter reverse line feeds from input
3.7.12. apg - generates several random passwords
3.7.13. head/tail
3.7.14. 反轉字元串或檔案內容
3.8. grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern
3.8.1. 刪除空行
3.8.2. -v, --invert-match
3.8.3. Output control -o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN 遞歸操作 -c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
3.8.4. Context control -A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context -B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context -C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context --color
3.8.5. Regexp selection and interpretation .* 2010:(13|14|15|16) []與{} -P, --perl-regexp Perl正則表達式
3.8.6. fgrep
3.8.7. egrep
3.9. sort - sort lines of text files
3.9.1. 對列排序
3.10. uniq
3.11. 表格操作/行列轉換
3.11.1. column - columnate lists
3.11.2. paste - merge lines of files
3.12. standard input/output
3.12.1. xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input 格式化 standard input -I 替換操作
3.13. Logging
3.13.1. logger - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module
3.14. Password
3.14.1. Shadow password suite configuration.
3.14.2. newusers - update and create new users in batch
3.14.3. chpasswd - update passwords in batch mode
3.15. binutils
3.15.1. strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.

3.1. Help Commands

3.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals manpath.config

cat /etc/manpath.config 查看man手冊位置

$ man -aw ls
/usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz 指定手冊位置

man -M /home/mysql/man mysql