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26.4. package / compress and decompress

26.4.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility

26.4.1.1. tar examples

tar

tar -cvf foo.tar foo/
       tar contents of folder foo in foo.tar

tar -xvf foo.tar
       extract foo.tar
			

26.4.1.2. gunzip

tar -zcvf foo.tar foo/
       tar contents of folder foo in foo.tar.gz
			
tar -xvzf foo.tar.gz
       extract gzipped foo.tar.gz
			

26.4.1.3. b2zip

b2zip
tar -jcvf foo.tar.bz2 foo/
       tar contents of folder foo in foo.tar.bz2

tar -jxvf foo.tar.bz2
       extract b2zip foo.tar.bz2
			

26.4.1.4. compress

compress/uncompress
tar -Zcvf foo.tar.Z foo/
       tar contents of folder foo in foo.tar.Z

tar -Zxvf foo.tar.Z
       extract compress foo.tar.Z
      		

26.4.1.5. -t, --list

-t, --list list the contents of an archive

列出tar包中的檔案

tar tvf neo.tar.gz
			
# mkdir -p /www/test.com/www.test.com/
# echo helloworld > /www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt
# tar zcvf www.test.com.tar.gz /www/test.com/www.test.com/

# tar ztvf www.test.com.tar.gz
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2013-08-08 15:24 www/test.com/www.test.com/
-rw-r--r-- root/root        11 2013-08-08 15:24 www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt

# tar zxvf www.test.com.tar.gz
www/test.com/www.test.com/
www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt

# find www
www
www/test.com
www/test.com/www.test.com
www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt
			

26.4.1.6. tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names

-P, --absolute-names don't strip leading `/'s from file names

$ tar -czvPf neo.tar.gz /home/neo/

$ tar -xzvPf neo.tar.gz
			

26.4.1.7. -C, --directory=DIR

-C, --directory=DIR change to directory DIR

解壓到目標目錄

tar -xzvf neo.tar.gz -C /tmp
			
# tar zxvf www.test.com.tar.gz -C /tmp
www/test.com/www.test.com/
www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt

# find /tmp/www/
/tmp/www/
/tmp/www/test.com
/tmp/www/test.com/www.test.com
/tmp/www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt



# rm -rf /www/test.com/*

# tar zxvf www.test.com.tar.gz -C /
www/test.com/www.test.com/
www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt

# find /www/test.com/
/www/test.com/
/www/test.com/www.test.com
/www/test.com/www.test.com/test.txt
			

26.4.1.8. -P, --absolute-names don't strip leading `/'s from file names

tar zcvfP www.test.com.tar.gz /www/test.com/www.test.com/
tar zxvfP www.test.com.tar.gz
			

26.4.1.9. --exclude

排除neo目錄

tar --exclude /home/neo -zcvf myfile.tar.gz /home/* /etc

tar zcvf rpmbuild/SOURCES/netkiller-1.0.tar.gz ~/workspace/public_html/* --exclude .git --exclude .svn
			

26.4.1.10. -T

find . -name "*.jpg" -print >list
tar -T list -czvf picture.tar.gz

find /etc/ | tar czvf xxx1.tar.gz -T -
			

26.4.1.11. 日期過濾

打包 2010/08/01 之後的檔案和目錄

tar -N '2010/08/01' -zcvf home.tar.gz /home
			

26.4.1.12. 保留權限

tar -zxvpf /tmp/etc.tar.gz /etc
			

26.4.1.13. -r, --append

追加最近7天更改過的檔案

find / -type f -mtime -7 | xargs tar -rf weekly_incremental.tar
			

26.4.1.14. 遠程傳輸

tar -jcpvf - file | ssh remote "tar -jxpvf -"
tar -jcpvf - file.php | ssh root@172.16.3.1 "tar -jxpvf -"
			

26.4.1.15. 分卷壓縮

分卷壓縮一個目錄:如doc

在doc目錄的上次目錄

#tar cvf doc | split -b 2m (已2M大小分卷壓縮)
#cat x* > doc.tar (合成分卷壓縮包)
			

或者

#tar czvf doc.tar.gz doc/
#tar czvfp - doc.tar.gz | split -b 5m
#cat x* > doc.tar.gz

查看壓縮包裡面的內容:

#tar -tf doc.tar
#tar -tzvf doc.tar.gz
			

26.4.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives

		
find /opt -print | cpio -o > opt.cpio

find . -type f -name '*.sh' -print | cpio -o | gzip >sh.cpio.gz

cpio –i < opt.cpio
		
		

26.4.3. gzip

gzip/gunzip
# ls access.2010-{10,11}-??.log
access.2010-10-01.log  access.2010-10-17.log  access.2010-11-02.log  access.2010-11-18.log
access.2010-10-02.log  access.2010-10-18.log  access.2010-11-03.log  access.2010-11-19.log
access.2010-10-03.log  access.2010-10-19.log  access.2010-11-04.log  access.2010-11-20.log
access.2010-10-04.log  access.2010-10-20.log  access.2010-11-05.log  access.2010-11-21.log
access.2010-10-05.log  access.2010-10-21.log  access.2010-11-06.log  access.2010-11-22.log
access.2010-10-06.log  access.2010-10-22.log  access.2010-11-07.log  access.2010-11-23.log
access.2010-10-07.log  access.2010-10-23.log  access.2010-11-08.log  access.2010-11-24.log
access.2010-10-08.log  access.2010-10-24.log  access.2010-11-09.log  access.2010-11-25.log
access.2010-10-09.log  access.2010-10-25.log  access.2010-11-10.log  access.2010-11-26.log
access.2010-10-10.log  access.2010-10-26.log  access.2010-11-11.log  access.2010-11-27.log
access.2010-10-11.log  access.2010-10-27.log  access.2010-11-12.log  access.2010-11-28.log
access.2010-10-12.log  access.2010-10-28.log  access.2010-11-13.log  access.2010-11-29.log
access.2010-10-13.log  access.2010-10-29.log  access.2010-11-14.log  access.2010-11-30.log
access.2010-10-14.log  access.2010-10-30.log  access.2010-11-15.log
access.2010-10-15.log  access.2010-10-31.log  access.2010-11-16.log
access.2010-10-16.log  access.2010-11-01.log  access.2010-11-17.log
# gzip access.2010-{10,11}-??.log
		
		
# ls access.2010-{0?,10,11}-??.log
access.2010-08-28.log  access.2010-10-02.log  access.2010-10-13.log  access.2010-10-27.log  access.2010-11-06.log  access.2010-11-17.log  access.2010-11-26.log
access.2010-08-31.log  access.2010-10-03.log  access.2010-10-14.log  access.2010-10-28.log  access.2010-11-08.log  access.2010-11-18.log  access.2010-11-27.log
access.2010-09-24.log  access.2010-10-04.log  access.2010-10-15.log  access.2010-10-29.log  access.2010-11-09.log  access.2010-11-19.log  access.2010-11-28.log
access.2010-09-25.log  access.2010-10-06.log  access.2010-10-17.log  access.2010-10-30.log  access.2010-11-10.log  access.2010-11-20.log  access.2010-11-29.log
access.2010-09-26.log  access.2010-10-07.log  access.2010-10-19.log  access.2010-10-31.log  access.2010-11-11.log  access.2010-11-21.log  access.2010-11-30.log
access.2010-09-27.log  access.2010-10-08.log  access.2010-10-20.log  access.2010-11-02.log  access.2010-11-12.log  access.2010-11-22.log
access.2010-09-29.log  access.2010-10-09.log  access.2010-10-22.log  access.2010-11-03.log  access.2010-11-14.log  access.2010-11-23.log
access.2010-09-30.log  access.2010-10-10.log  access.2010-10-23.log  access.2010-11-04.log  access.2010-11-15.log  access.2010-11-24.log
access.2010-10-01.log  access.2010-10-12.log  access.2010-10-25.log  access.2010-11-05.log  access.2010-11-16.log  access.2010-11-25.log
# gzip access.2010-{0?,10,11}-??.log &
		
		

26.4.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files

*.zip

zip/unzip file[.zip]

26.4.5. RAR

sudo apt-get install rar unrar
		

26.4.6. 7-Zip

p7zip - 7z file archiver with high compression ratio

http://www.7-zip.org/

如果你僅僅是解壓檔案,只需安裝下面的包即可

$ sudo apt-get install p7zip
		

如果你要創建7zip檔案就需要安裝p7zip-full

$ sudo apt-get install p7zip-full
		

26.4.6.1. 壓縮

$ 7z a test.7z /etc/*			
			

26.4.6.2. 瀏覽壓縮包

$ 7z l test.7z 			
			

26.4.6.3. 解壓

$ 7z e test.7z			
			

26.4.6.4. Creates self extracting archive.

創建自解壓檔案

7z a -sfx a.7z *.txt
			

解壓

./a.7z