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44.4. strongswan - IPSec utilities for strongSwan

Windows 10 + IKEv2 VPN

http://www.strongswan.org/

	
User -> Windows 10 Desktop -> Inside Greatwall -> VPN Server(Hongkong/Other) -> Outside Greatwall
	
	

首先在海外部署一台伺服器,將伺服器配置成為VPN伺服器,然後桌面用戶通過該伺服器,你懂的......

由於pptp,l2tp,openvpn 先後被牆,所以我選擇了IKEv2。

44.4.1. 安裝 strongswan VPN 伺服器

CentOS 7 環境

yum install -y strongswane

yum install -y haveged
systemctl enable haveged
systemctl start haveged

cd /etc/strongswan
		

創建自簽名CA根證書

# 私鑰證書
strongswan pki --gen --type rsa --size 4096 --outform der > ipsec.d/private/CARootKey.der
chmod 600 ipsec.d/private/CARootKey.der

# 公鑰證書
strongswan pki --self --ca --lifetime 3650 --in ipsec.d/private/CARootKey.der --type rsa --dn "C=NL, O=Example Company, CN=StrongSwan Root CA" --outform der > ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.der
strongswan  pki --print --in ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.der
		

頒發伺服器證書

# 私鑰證書
strongswan pki --gen --type rsa --size 2048 --outform der > ipsec.d/private/ServerKey.der
chmod 600 ipsec.d/private/ServerKey.der

# 公鑰證書
strongswan pki --pub --in ipsec.d/private/ServerKey.der --type rsa | strongswan pki --issue --lifetime 730 --cacert ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.der --cakey ipsec.d/private/CARootKey.der --dn "C=NL, O=Example Company, CN=vpn.example.org" --san vpn.example.com --san vpn.example.net --san 147.90.44.87  --san @147.90.44.87 --flag serverAuth --flag ikeIntermediate --outform der > ipsec.d/certs/ServerCert.der
strongswan pki --print --in ipsec.d/certs/ServerCert.der
		

頒發客戶端用戶證書

# 私鑰證書
cd /etc/strongswan/
strongswan pki --gen --type rsa --size 2048 --outform der > ipsec.d/private/ClientKey.der
chmod 600 ipsec.d/private/ClientKey.der

# 公鑰證書
strongswan pki --pub --in ipsec.d/private/ClientKey.der --type rsa | strongswan pki --issue --lifetime 730 --cacert ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.der --cakey ipsec.d/private/CARootKey.der --dn "C=NL, O=Example Company, CN=netkiller@msn.com" --san "netkiller@msn.com" --san "neo.chan@live.com" --outform der > ipsec.d/certs/ClientCert.der

# 證書轉換,轉過過程是 der -> pem -> p12 
openssl rsa -inform DER -in ipsec.d/private/ClientKey.der -out ipsec.d/private/ClientKey.pem -outform PEM
openssl x509 -inform DER -in ipsec.d/certs/ClientCert.der -out ipsec.d/certs/ClientCert.pem -outform PEM
openssl x509 -inform DER -in ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.der -out ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.pem -outform PEM

# 請為證書設置一個密碼
openssl pkcs12 -export  -inkey ipsec.d/private/ClientKey.pem -in ipsec.d/certs/ClientCert.pem -name "Client's VPN Certificate"  -certfile ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.pem -caname "strongSwan Root CA" -out Client.p12				
		

p12中包含了CA證書,客戶端私鑰證書,客戶端公鑰證書。Client.p12 發送給最終用戶即可

[提示]提示

如果你安裝過 OpenVPN 那麼會很好理解,上述的幾個步驟等同於:

	
build-ca 				= CARootKey/CARootCert
build-key-server server = ServerKey/ServerCert
build-key client1		= Client.p12 
		

44.4.2. 防火牆配置

開啟轉發

		
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/vpn.conf <<EOF
# VPN
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0
EOF

sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/vpn.conf
		
		

開放500,4500兩個連接埠,注意是UDP協議,允許esp,ah協議通過,最後IP偽裝

# for ISAKMP (handling of security associations)
iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 500 --j ACCEPT

# for NAT-T (handling of IPsec between natted devices)
iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 4500 --j ACCEPT

# for ESP payload (the encrypted data packets)
iptables -A INPUT -p esp -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p ah -j ACCEPT

# for the routing of packets on the server
iptables -I POSTROUTING -t nat -o eth1 -j MASQUERADE
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth1 -j SNAT --to-source xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
		

xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx 改為你的出口IP,也就是 eth1的IP地址。

啟動 strongswan 服務

如果你使用 CentOS 7 firewalld 請用下面命令

firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --permanent --add-rich-rule='rule protocol value="esp" accept' # ESP (the encrypted data packets)
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --permanent --add-rich-rule='rule protocol value="ah" accept' # AH (authenticated headers)
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --permanent --add-port=500/udp #IKE  (security associations)
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --permanent --add-port=4500/udp # IKE NAT Traversal (IPsec between natted devices)
firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service="ipsec"
firewall-cmd --zone=dmz --permanent --add-masquerade
firewall-cmd --permanent --set-default-zone=dmz
firewall-cmd --reload
firewall-cmd --list-all		
		

44.4.3. 配置 IPSEC

下面配置 IPSEC 複製粘貼即可

		
cp /etc/strongswan/ipsec.conf{,.original}
cat > /etc/strongswan/ipsec.conf <<EOF
# ipsec.conf - strongSwan IPsec configuration file

config setup
    charondebug="ike 2, knl 2, cfg 2, net 2, esp 2, dmn 2,  mgr 2"

conn %default
    keyexchange=ikev2
    ike=aes128-sha256-ecp256,aes256-sha384-ecp384,aes128-sha256-modp2048,aes128-sha1-modp2048,aes256-sha384-modp4096,aes256-sha256-modp4096,aes256-sha1-modp4096,aes128-sha256-modp1536,aes128-sha1-modp1536,aes256-sha384-modp2048,aes256-sha256-modp2048,aes256-sha1-modp2048,aes128-sha256-modp1024,aes128-sha1-modp1024,aes256-sha384-modp1536,aes256-sha256-modp1536,aes256-sha1-modp1536,aes256-sha384-modp1024,aes256-sha256-modp1024,aes256-sha1-modp1024!
    esp=aes128gcm16-ecp256,aes256gcm16-ecp384,aes128-sha256-ecp256,aes256-sha384-ecp384,aes128-sha256-modp2048,aes128-sha1-modp2048,aes256-sha384-modp4096,aes256-sha256-modp4096,aes256-sha1-modp4096,aes128-sha256-modp1536,aes128-sha1-modp1536,aes256-sha384-modp2048,aes256-sha256-modp2048,aes256-sha1-modp2048,aes128-sha256-modp1024,aes128-sha1-modp1024,aes256-sha384-modp1536,aes256-sha256-modp1536,aes256-sha1-modp1536,aes256-sha384-modp1024,aes256-sha256-modp1024,aes256-sha1-modp1024,aes128gcm16,aes256gcm16,aes128-sha256,aes128-sha1,aes256-sha384,aes256-sha256,aes256-sha1!
    dpdaction=clear
    dpddelay=300s
    rekey=no
    left=%any
    leftsubnet=0.0.0.0/0
    leftcert=ServerCert.der
    right=%any
    rightdns=8.8.8.8,8.8.4.4
    rightsourceip=10.10.0.0/24

conn IPSec-IKEv2
    keyexchange=ikev2
    auto=add

conn IPSec-IKEv2-EAP
    also="IPSec-IKEv2"
    rightauth=eap-mschapv2
    rightauthby2=pubkey
    rightsendcert=never
    eap_identity=%any

conn CiscoIPSec
    keyexchange=ikev1
    forceencaps=yes
    authby=xauthrsasig
    xauth=server
    auto=add
EOF
		
		

配置 VPN 賬號與密碼

		
# VPN user accounts and secrets
cat > /etc/strongswan/ipsec.secrets <<EOF
: RSA ServerKey.der

neo : EAP "hWAS5IJWD8NxlQvVFaUVAKid6IFJ6uNO" 
jam : EAP "1cNEwkfsaN6GzcmWYLedUvJXSpb16UPH" 
EOF
		
		

啟動 strongswan

systemctl enable strongswan
systemctl start strongswan
		

44.4.4. Windows 10 VPN 客戶端配置

導入客戶端p12證書,直接雙擊Client.p12檔案即可

選擇“本地計算機”

下一步

輸入證書密碼,下一步

下一步

點擊“完成”按鈕

證書導入成功

接下來配置 Windows 10 VPN 連結

任務條最右測系統托盤區,點擊網絡表徵圖,再點擊“網絡設置”

點擊“VPN”,然後點擊“添加 VPN 連結”

填寫信息並保存

點擊“更改適配器選項”

找到VPN網絡適配器,滑鼠右鍵點擊,選擇“屬性”

切換到“網絡”選項卡,選中“IPv4”後點擊“屬性按鈕”

點擊“高級”按鈕

勾選“在遠程網絡上使用預設網關”,然後點擊“確定”按鈕

回到網絡設置界面,點擊VPN表徵圖,再點擊連結

現在查看你的IP地址,正確應該是經過VPN Server 訪問互聯網。

44.4.5. FAQ

44.4.5.1. 查看證書信息

strongswan  pki --print --in ipsec.d/cacerts/CARootCert.der
strongswan pki --print --in ipsec.d/certs/ServerCert.der
			

或使用openssl查看

openssl x509 -inform DER -in ipsec.d/certs/ServerCert.der -noout -text