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40.2. Squid - Internet Object Cache (WWW proxy cache)

如果apache 安裝了gzip,deflate需要開啟cache_vary

cache_vary on

40.2.1. 源碼安裝

wget http://www.squid-cache.org/Versions/v2/2.6/squid-2.6.STABLE13.tar.gz
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/squid-2.6
make all
make install

mkdir -p /usr/local/squid-2.6/var/cache
chown nobody.nobody -R /usr/local/squid-2.6/var/
ln -s /usr/local/squid-2.6 /usr/local/squid
cd /usr/local/squid

./squid -NCd1
		

40.2.2. debian/ubuntu 安裝

$ sudo apt-get install squid
$ sudo apt-get install squid3
$ sudo apt-get install squidclient
			

40.2.3. 配置

查看當前配置參數

當你打開squid.conf檔案時,你會頭大,因為檔案太長了,並且已經啟用了部分參數。你可以使用下面命令查看那些參數被開啟。

$ grep '^[a-z]' squid.conf		
		

下面是安裝squid3後的預設開啟選項

$ grep '^[a-z]' squid.conf
acl manager proto cache_object
acl localhost src 127.0.0.1/32
acl to_localhost dst 127.0.0.0/8
acl SSL_ports port 443
acl Safe_ports port 80          # http
acl Safe_ports port 21          # ftp
acl Safe_ports port 443         # https
acl Safe_ports port 70          # gopher
acl Safe_ports port 210         # wais
acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535  # unregistered ports
acl Safe_ports port 280         # http-mgmt
acl Safe_ports port 488         # gss-http
acl Safe_ports port 591         # filemaker
acl Safe_ports port 777         # multiling http
acl CONNECT method CONNECT
http_access allow manager localhost
http_access deny manager
http_access deny !Safe_ports
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
http_access allow localhost
http_access deny all
icp_access deny all
htcp_access deny all
http_port 3128
hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ?
access_log /var/log/squid3/access.log squid
refresh_pattern ^ftp:           1440    20%     10080
refresh_pattern ^gopher:        1440    0%      1440
refresh_pattern (cgi-bin|\?)    0       0%      0
refresh_pattern .               0       20%     4320
icp_port 3130
coredump_dir /var/spool/squid3		
		

修改squid.conf之前請做好備份。

netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo cp squid.conf squid.conf.old
netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo vi squid.conf
		

生成自己的squid.conf檔案,這樣比較清晰

$ grep '^[a-z]' squid.conf.old > squid.conf		
		

40.2.3.1. 正向代理

# cat squid.conf
acl manager proto cache_object
acl localhost src 127.0.0.1/32 ::1
acl to_localhost dst 127.0.0.0/8 0.0.0.0/32 ::1
acl SSL_ports port 443
acl Safe_ports port 80          # http
acl Safe_ports port 21          # ftp
acl Safe_ports port 443         # https
acl Safe_ports port 70          # gopher
acl Safe_ports port 210         # wais
acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535  # unregistered ports
acl Safe_ports port 280         # http-mgmt
acl Safe_ports port 488         # gss-http
acl Safe_ports port 591         # filemaker
acl Safe_ports port 777         # multiling http
acl CONNECT method CONNECT
http_access allow manager localhost
http_access deny manager
http_access deny !Safe_ports
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
http_access allow localhost
http_access allow all
#http_access deny all
http_port 3128
hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ?
coredump_dir /var/spool/squid3
refresh_pattern ^ftp:           1440    20%     10080
refresh_pattern ^gopher:        1440    0%      1440
refresh_pattern -i (/cgi-bin/|\?) 0     0%      0

refresh_pattern -i \.css$ 	1440 50% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.js$ 	1440 90% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.hml$ 	1440 90% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.html$ 	1440 90% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.shtml$ 1440 90% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.xml$ 	1440 50% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.jpg$ 	1440 90% 129600 reload-into-ims
refresh_pattern -i \.png$ 	1440 90% 129600 ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.gif$ 	1440 90% 129600 ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.bmp$ 	1440 90% 129600 ignore-reload

refresh_pattern -i \.mp3$ 	1440 50% 2880 ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.wmv$ 	1440 50% 2880 ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.rm$ 	1440 50% 2880 ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.swf$ 	1440 50% 2880 ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.mpeg$ 	1440 50% 2880 ignore-reload

refresh_pattern -i \.doc$ 		1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.ppt$ 		1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.xls$ 		1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.pdf$ 		1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.rar$       1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.zip$ 		1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload
refresh_pattern -i \.txt$ 		1440    50%     2880      ignore-reload

refresh_pattern .               0       20%     4320
			

設置代理伺服器

declare -x ftp_proxy="192.168.0.1:3128"
declare -x ftps_proxy="192.168.0.1:3128"
declare -x http_proxy="192.168.0.1:3128"
declare -x https_proxy="192.168.0.1:3128"
			

檢查Cache工作情況

# declare -x http_proxy="172.16.0.5:3128"

# curl -I http://www.qq.com
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Server: squid/3.0
Date: Wed, 15 Jun 2011 07:54:36 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=GB2312
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Expires: Wed, 15 Jun 2011 08:09:36 GMT
Cache-Control: max-age=900
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-Cache: HIT from rainny.qq.com
X-Cache: MISS from localhost
X-Cache-Lookup: MISS from localhost:3128
Via: 1.0 localhost (squid/3.1.6)
Proxy-Connection: keep-alive

# curl -I http://www.qq.com
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Server: squid/3.0
Date: Wed, 15 Jun 2011 07:54:36 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=GB2312
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Expires: Wed, 15 Jun 2011 08:09:36 GMT
Cache-Control: max-age=900
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-Cache: HIT from rainny.qq.com
Age: 2
X-Cache: HIT from localhost
X-Cache-Lookup: HIT from localhost:3128
Via: 1.0 localhost (squid/3.1.6)
Proxy-Connection: keep-alive
			

當第二次請求同一個URL的時候X-Cache: 由MISS變為HIT,表示已經被緩存

40.2.3.2. 代理伺服器

加入權限認證

netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo htpasswd -c /etc/squid/squid_passwd neo
New password:
Re-type new password:
Adding password for user neo
netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$


netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo find / -name ncsa_auth
/usr/lib/squid/ncsa_auth

#
# Add this to the auth_param section of squid.conf
#
auth_param basic program /usr/lib/squid/ncsa_auth /etc/squid/squid_passwd

#
# Add this to the bottom of the ACL section of squid.conf
#
acl ncsa_users proxy_auth REQUIRED
acl business_hours time M T W H F 9:00-17:00

#
# Add this at the top of the http_access section of squid.conf
#
http_access allow ncsa_users business_hours

			

extension_methods REPORT MERGE MKACTIVITY CHECKOUT # subversion

extension_methods REPORT MERGE MKACTIVITY CHECKOUT			
			

預設連接埠 3128 如果你不想改squid.conf,可以使用iptables映射

iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp -s 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 3128

設置你的瀏覽器,並測試

40.2.3.3. Squid作為反向代理Cache伺服器(Reverse Proxy)

這裡我們將apache和squid安裝在一台伺服器上

過程 40.1. 配置步驟

  1. 配置Apache監聽連接埠

    netkiller@Linux-server:~$ cd /etc/apache2/
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$ sudo cp ports.conf ports.conf.old
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$ sudo vi ports.conf
    Listen 8080
    Listen 443
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
     * Forcing reload of apache 2.0 web server...                                                                                          [ ok ]
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$
    					

    restart/reload後測試一下

    http://localhost:8080/

  2. squid 2.5 之前的版本

    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$ cd ../squid/
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo vi squid.conf
    http_port 80
    httpd_accel_host localhost
    httpd_accel_port 8080
    httpd_accel_single_host on
    httpd_accel_with_proxy on
    httpd_accel_uses_host_header off
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo /etc/init.d/squid reload
     * Reloading Squid configuration files
       ...done.
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$
    					

    squid 2.5 之前的版本

    對公網主機220.201.35.11:80做Cache

    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$ cd ../squid/
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo vi squid.conf
    http_port 80
    httpd_accel_host 220.201.35.11
    httpd_accel_port 80
    httpd_accel_single_host on
    httpd_accel_with_proxy on
    httpd_accel_uses_host_header off
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo /etc/init.d/squid reload
     * Reloading Squid configuration files
       ...done.
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$
    					

    多台主機做Cache

    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/apache2$ cd ../squid/
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo vi squid.conf
    http_port 80
    httpd_accel_host virtual
    httpd_accel_port 8080
    httpd_accel_single_host on
    httpd_accel_with_proxy on
    httpd_accel_uses_host_header off
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$ sudo /etc/init.d/squid reload
     * Reloading Squid configuration files
       ...done.
    netkiller@Linux-server:/etc/squid$
    					
  3. squid 2.6之後版本的配置

    localhost

    http_port 80 defaultsite=localhost vhost transparent
    cache_peer localhost parent 8080 0 no-query originserver
    					

    其它主機

    http_port 80 defaultsite=192.168.1.2 vhost transparent
    cache_peer 192.168.1.2 parent 80 0 no-query originserver
    					
  4. 2.7/3.0 版本

    visible_hostname netkiller.8800.org
    
    http_port 80 accel vhost vport
    
    cache_peer 127.0.0.1 parent 8080 0 no-query originserver name=mainsite
    cache_peer 127.0.0.1 parent 8080 0 no-query originserver name=site1
    cache_peer_domain mainsite netkiller.8800.org
    cache_peer_domain site1 neo.ohyeap.com
    http_access allow all
    				
    					
  5. 注意事項

    ERROR

    The requested URL could not be retrieved

    * Access Denied

    出現上面錯說,關閉http_access deny all

    # And finally deny all other access to this proxy

    #http_access deny all

#squid.conf
#伺服器IP 192.168.1.1
#監聽伺服器的80連接埠,透明代理,支持域名和IP的虛擬主機
http_port 192.168.1.1:80 transparent vhost vport

#限制同一IP客戶端的最大連接數
acl OverConnLimit maxconn 16
http_access deny OverConnLimit

#防止天涯盜鏈,轉嫁給百度
acl tianya referer_regex -i tianya
http_access deny tianya
deny_info http://www.baidu.com/logs.gif tianya

#防止被人利用為HTTP代理,設置允許訪問的IP地址
acl myip dst 192.168.1.1
http_access deny !myip

#防止百度機器人爬死伺服器
acl AntiBaidu req_header User-Agent Baiduspider
http_access deny AntiBaidu

#允許本地管理
acl Manager proto cache_object
acl Localhost src 127.0.0.1 192.168.1.1
http_access allow Manager Localhost
http_access deny Manager

#僅僅允許80連接埠的代理
acl Safe_ports port 80 # http
http_access deny !Safe_ports
http_access allow all

#Squid信息設置
visible_hostname netkiller.8800.org
cache_mgr openunix@163.com

#基本設置
cache_effective_user squid
cache_effective_group squid
tcp_recv_bufsize 65535 bytes

#2.5的反向代理加速配置
#httpd_accel_host 127.0.0.1
#httpd_accel_port 80
#httpd_accel_single_host on
#httpd_accel_uses_host_header on
#httpd_accel_with_proxy on
#2.6的反向代理加速配置
#代理到本機的80連接埠的服務,僅僅做為原始內容伺服器
cache_peer 127.0.0.1 parent 80 0 no-query originserver

#錯誤文檔
error_directory /usr/local/squid/share/errors/Simplify_Chinese

#單台使用,不使用該功能
icp_port 0
			

40.2.3.4. 代理+反向代理

http_port 80 vhost vport defaultsite=220.201.35.11
http_port 88
......
......
acl Manager proto cache_object
acl Localhost src 127.0.0.1/32
acl Safe_ports port 80
acl all src 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
acl ACCEL_DST dst 127.0.0.1/32 220.201.35.11/32

acl ACCEL_MODE  myport 80
acl PROXY_MODE  myport 88
# Authentation
auth_param basic realm Please Login
auth_param basic program /usr/local/squid/libexec/ncsa_auth /usr/local/squid/etc/passwd
acl VALIDUSER proxy_auth plan9

# ACCEL MODE
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
cache_peer 10.34.2.93 parent 80 0 no-query originserver
cache_peer_access 220.201.35.11 allow ACCEL_MODE
cache_peer_access 220.201.35.11 deny all

http_access allow ACCEL_DST Safe_ports
http_access allow PROXY_MODE VALIDUSER
http_access deny !Safe_ports
http_access allow ACCEL_MODE
http_access allow Manager Localhost
http_access deny all
icp_access deny all
			

40.2.4. Squid 管理

40.2.4.1. squidclient

squidclient -- client interface to the squid cache

squidclient 使用方法

  1. 運行狀態信息: squidclient -p 80 mgr:info
  2. 內存使用情況: squidclient -p 80 mgr:mem
  3. 磁碟使用情況: squidclient -p 80 mgr:diskd
  4. 已經緩存的列表: squidclient -p 80 mgr:objects. use it carefully,it may crash
  5. 強制更新url:squidclient -p 80 -m PURGE http://netkiller.8800.org/index.html
  6. 查看更多信息:squidclient -h 或者 squidclient -p 80 mgr:
debian:~# squidclient -p 80 mgr:squidaio_counts
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Server: squid/2.6.STABLE5
Date: Sun, 29 Apr 2007 13:27:09 GMT
Content-Type: text/plain
Expires: Sun, 29 Apr 2007 13:27:09 GMT
Last-Modified: Sun, 29 Apr 2007 13:27:09 GMT
X-Cache: MISS from debian.example.org.example.org
X-Cache-Lookup: MISS from debian.example.org.example.org:80
Via: 1.0 debian.example.org.example.org:80 (squid/2.6.STABLE5)
Connection: close

ASYNC IO Counters:
Operation       # Requests
open    0
close   0
cancel  0
write   0
read    0
stat    0
unlink  0
check_callback  0
queue   0
debian:~#

			

squidclient -p 80 mgr:5min

40.2.4.2. reset cache

重做 cache

mkdir /var/spool/squid		
chown proxy.proxy -R /var/spool/squid		
netkiller@Linux-server:~$ sudo squid -z
netkiller@Linux-server:~$ sudo squid -k reconfigure
			

40.2.5. 禁止頁面被Cache

加到head中

		
  HTML
          <META   HTTP-EQUIV="pragma" CONTENT="no-cache">
          <META   HTTP-EQUIV="Cache-Control" CONTENT="no-cache, must-revalidate">
          <META   HTTP-EQUIV="expires" CONTENT="Wed, 26 Feb 1978 08:21:57 GMT">
  ASP
  <%
          Response.Expires = -1
          Response.ExpiresAbsolute = Now() - 1
          Response.cachecontrol = "no-cache"
  %>
  PHP
          header("Expires: Mon, 26 Jul 1997 05:00:00 GMT");
          header("Cache-Control: no-cache, must-revalidate");
          header("Pragma: no-cache");
  JSP
          response.setHeader("Pragma","No-Cache");
          response.setHeader("Cache-Control","No-Cache");
          response.setDateHeader("Expires",   0);
  C#中禁止cache的方法!
          Response.Buffer=true;
          Response.ExpiresAbsolute=System.DateTime.Now.AddSeconds(-1);
          Response.Expires=0;
          Response.CacheControl="no-cache";
		
		

讓瀏覽器發送no-cache頭,只需Ctrl+f5刷新

40.2.6. Squid 實用案例

40.2.6.1. Squid Apache/Lighttpd 在同一台伺服器上

squid 與 web server 在同一台伺服器上,一般情況是squid 監聽80連接埠, web server 監聽其它連接埠(一般是8080)

用戶訪問時通過80連接埠訪問伺服器.不想讓用戶訪問8080.

  1. web server

    Apache httpd.conf檔案Listen 8080 改成IP:Port,這樣8080連接埠只允許本地訪問

    Listen 127.0.0.1:8080
    					

    lighttpd

    vi /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
    server.port               = 8080
    server.bind               = "localhost"
    
    /etc/init.d/lighttpd reload
    					

    本地測試

    curl http://127.0.0.1:8080/
    					
  2. Squid

    http_port 80 defaultsite=localhost vhost
    cache_peer localhost parent 8080 0 no-query originserver
    
    acl our_networks src 172.16.0.0/16
    http_access allow our_networks
    http_access allow all
    					

    測試

    curl http://127.0.0.1/
    					

    在其它電腦上用IE訪問http://your_ip/ 可以看到你的主頁

    在其它電腦上用IE訪問 http://ip:8080/ 應該是無法訪問

  3. 另一種方法是使用 iptables 實現

    /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 8080 -j DROP
    /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -p tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT
    					

使用 nmap 工具還是可以看到8080存在的.

# nmap localhost
debian:~# nmap localhost

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2007-04-29 08:28 EDT
Interesting ports on localhost (127.0.0.1):
Not shown: 1670 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
25/tcp   open  smtp
53/tcp   open  domain
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
113/tcp  open  auth
548/tcp  open  afpovertcp
901/tcp  open  samba-swat
953/tcp  open  rndc
8080/tcp open  http-proxy

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.268 seconds
			

40.2.6.2. 用非 root 用戶守護 Squid

squid.conf

http_port 3128 transparent vhost vport
			

iptables 做連接埠重定向

iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -j REDIRECT -p tcp --destination-port 80 --to-ports 3128
			

40.2.7. squid+icap+clamav

squid+icap+clamav

http://icap-server.sourceforge.net/squid.html http://wiki.squid-cache.org/Features/ICAP