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第 5 章 Git - Fast Version Control System

distributed revision control system

目錄

5.1. Repositories 倉庫管理
5.1.1. initial setup
5.1.2. checkout
5.1.3. Creating and Commiting
5.1.4. Manager remote
5.1.5. Status
5.1.6. Diff
5.1.6.1. --name-only 僅顯示檔案名
5.1.7. Cloning
5.1.8. Push
5.1.9. Pull
5.1.10. fetch
5.1.11. Creating a Patch
5.1.12. reset
5.2. Manipulating branches
5.2.1. list branches
5.2.2. create branches
5.2.3. delete branches
5.2.4. switch branch
5.2.5. git-show-branch - Show branches and their commits
5.3. Sharing Repositories with others
5.3.1. Setting up a git server
5.4. command
5.4.1. git-add - Add file contents to the index
5.4.2. git-status - Show the working tree status
5.4.3. git-commit - Record changes to the repository
5.4.4. git-show - Show various types of objects
5.4.5. git-checkout - Checkout and switch to a branch
5.4.5.1. checkout master
5.4.5.2. checkout branch
5.4.6. git config
5.4.7. git log
5.5. git-daemon 伺服器
5.5.1. git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
5.5.2. git-daemon-sysvinit
5.5.3. inet.conf / xinetd 方式啟動
5.5.4. git-daemon-run
5.5.5. Testing
5.6. git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git
5.7. .gitignore
5.8. .gitattributes
5.8.1. SVN Keywords
5.9. gitolite - SSH-based gatekeeper for git repositories
5.9.1. gitolite-admin
5.9.1.1. gitolite.conf
5.9.1.1.1. staff
5.9.1.1.2. repo
5.10. Web Tools
5.10.1. viewgit
5.11. FAQ
5.11.1. 導出最後一次修改過的檔案
5.11.2. 導出指定版本區間修改過的檔案
5.11.3. fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
5.11.4. 回撤提交

homepage: http://git.or.cz/index.html

過程 5.1. Git

  1. install

    sudo apt-get install git-core
    			
  2. config

    			
    $ git-config --global user.name neo
    $ git-config --global user.email openunix@163.com
    			
    			
  3. Initializ

    $ mkdir repository
    $ cd repository/
    
    /repository$ git-init-db
    Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
    			

    to check .gitconfig file

    $ cat ~/.gitconfig
    [user]
            name = chen
            email = openunix@163.com
    			

5.1. Repositories 倉庫管理

5.1.1. initial setup

Tell git who you are:

$ git config user.name "FirstName LastName"
$ git config user.email "user@example.com"

If you have many git repositories under your current user, you can set this for all of them


$ git config --global user.name "FirstName LastName"
$ git config --global user.email "user@example.com"

If you want pretty colors, you can setup the following for branch, status, and diff commands:

$ git config --global color.branch "auto"
$ git config --global color.status "auto"
$ git config --global color.diff "auto"

Or, to turn all color options on (with git 1.5.5+), use:

$ git config --global color.ui "auto"
To enable aut-detection for number of threads to use (good for multi-CPU or multi-core computers) for packing repositories, use:


$ git config --global pack.threads "0"
To disable the rename detection limit (which is set "pretty low" according to Linus, "just to not cause problems for people who have less memory in their machines than kernel developers tend to have"), use:

$ git config --global   diff.renamelimit "0"
		

5.1.2. checkout

將 nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp 檔案 重置到 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 版本

git checkout 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 -- nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp
		

5.1.3. Creating and Commiting

$ cd (project-directory)
$ git init
$ (add some files)
$ git add .
$ git commit -m 'Initial commit'
		

5.1.4. Manager remote

remote add

		
git remote add origin git@localhost:example.git
		
		

remote show

		
git remote show
origin
		
		

remote rm

		
git remote rm origin
		
		

添加多個遠程倉庫

git remote add origin git@localhost:example.git
git remote add another https://gitcafe.com/netkiller/netkiller.gitcafe.com.git
git push origin master
git push another master
		

5.1.5. Status

		
$ git clone git://10.10.0.5/example.git
Cloning into example...
remote: Counting objects: 5, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (4/4), done.
remote: Total 5 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (5/5), done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (1/1), done.

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp$ cd example/

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ git status
# On branch master
nothing to commit (working directory clean)

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ ls
test1  test2  test3  test4

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ echo hello > test1

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ git status
# On branch master
# Changes not staged for commit:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
#   (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)
#
#	modified:   test1
#
no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
		
		

5.1.6. Diff

		
neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ git diff
diff --git a/test1 b/test1
index e69de29..ce01362 100644
--- a/test1
+++ b/test1
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+hello
		
		

比較 nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp 檔案 當前版本與 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 版本的區別

git diff 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 -- nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp
		

5.1.6.1. --name-only 僅顯示檔案名

git diff --name-only
			

5.1.7. Cloning

		
$ git clone git://github.com/git/hello-world.git
$ cd hello-world
$ (edit files)
$ git add (files)
$ git commit -m 'Explain what I changed'
		
		

5.1.8. Push

		
$ git clone git://10.10.0.5/example.git
$ cd example
$ (edit files)
$ git add (files)
$ git commit -m 'Explain what I changed'

$ git push origin master
Counting objects: 5, done.
Delta compression using up to 2 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 278 bytes, done.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
To git://10.10.0.5/example.git
   27f8417..b088cc3  master -> master
		
		

5.1.9. Pull

$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 5, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
remote: Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (3/3), done.
From git://10.10.0.5/example
   27f8417..b088cc3  master     -> origin/master
Updating 27f8417..b088cc3
Fast-forward
 test1 |    1 +
 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
		

5.1.10. fetch

$ git fetch
remote: Counting objects: 3, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
remote: Total 2 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (2/2), done.
From git://10.10.0.5/example
   b088cc3..7e8c17d  master     -> origin/master
		

5.1.11. Creating a Patch

		
$ git clone git://github.com/git/hello-world.git
$ cd hello-world
$ (edit files)
$ git add (files)
$ git commit -m 'Explain what I changed'
$ git format-patch origin/master
		
		

5.1.12. reset

重置到上一個版本

git log
git reset --hard HEAD^
git log
git push -f